بررسی تطبیقی قید در دستور زبان فارسی و عربی- قسمت ۲۷

A Comparative Study of Adverb in Persian and Arabic Grammar

 

 

Author: Atefeh Rahvariyan

 

 

 

Supervisor(s): Mohammad Ahi ( Ph.D)

 

 

 

Advisor(s): Seyyed Mahdi Masbough (Ph.D)

 

 

 

Faculty: Literature & Humanities

 

 

 

Department: Persian Language and Literature

 

 

 

Degree: M.A

 

 

Field: –

 

 

Subject: Persian Language and Literature

 

 

 

Number of Pages: 100

 

 

Defence Date: 10/03/2014

 

 

Approval Date: 10/04/2012

 

 

 

Abstract:
Comparative literature has been traditionally recognized as a major for studying shared aspects of literary works from two cultures. Even today this is a common conception of comparative literature. A wider perspective, however, will extend the field to incorporate various subjects of study in order to create mutual understanding among different nations. To this purpose, the present thesis aims at a comparative study of adverb in Persian and Arabic grammar. In so doing, various definitions of adverb from past to present are reviewed; definitions which revolve mostly around arbitrariness of adverbs and their categorization into specific (‘mokhtas’), common (‘moshtarak’), and thematic (‘muhtavaei’) adverbs. The subjective and non-systematic criteria used so far by grammarians have led to confusions in classifying adverbs in terms of both form and meaning. As a result, after summarizing the grammarians’ discussions and analyzing them through the lens of linguistics, the present thesis determines the structural position of adverbs in the sentence. By distinguishing between the category of adverb and its syntactic function, the conflicts will be eliminated regarding the widespread categorization of adverbs into specific (‘mokhtas’) and common (‘moshtarak’) since the term adverb is used to refer to both a lexical category, e.g. ‘be khubi’ (well) and ‘ba ajaleh’ (hastily), and a syntactic function. Concerning a second problem, i.e. arbitrariness of adverbs, linguistics discloses that there are several cases where elimination of an adverb changes sentence structure as well as sentence meaning. After this linguistic analysis of adverb in Persian language, the semantic and syntactic equivalents of Persian adverbs in Arabic are discussed. The conclusion is that, although in Arabic syntax there is not an independent category of adverb, there are such other categories as accusative object (‘maf’ul mutlaq’), dative object (‘maf’ul lah’), prepositional object (‘maf’ul fih’), exception (‘mustathna’), prepositions, and irregular verbs (‘Af’al naqisah’) that can represent Persian adverbs.

 

 

 

Key Words: Persian grammar, Arabic grammar, adverb, comparative literature.

 

 

 

    1. مانند قیود مختص که در خارج از جمله نیز قید محسوب می‌شوند. ↑

 

    1. .عناصر طبقه ی بسته ی دستوری عناصری هستند که به ندرت با پذیرش عضو جدید گسترش می‌یابند
      طبقه ی باز به عناصری اطلاق می‌شود که بی نهایت قابل بست و گسترش باشند ↑

 

    1. البته بیان می‌دارد که هر ظرفی در داخل جمله می‌تواند قید باشد ولی هر قیدی اجباراً از ظرف به عمل نمی‌آید. ↑

 

    1. مصدرمبهم، مصدری است که بر مجرد معنای آن اختصار شده یعنی معنای دیگری به آن اضافه نشده‌باشد. ↑

 

  1. مصدر مختص، مصدری است که به صورت اضافه، .صفت، عدد، تثنیه، جمع و… معنایی به معنای مصدر اضافه شده‌باشد. ↑

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