پایان نامه با کلید واژگان tradition، Translation، perceptions

the study of translation can hardly be relegated to the periphery of other discipline and sub-disciplines those listed above being no expectation. What is needed is academic discipline which takes the phenomenon of translation as its main object of study. For many scholars, this discipline now exists. Some refer to it as the science of translation. Others as translatology, but the most common term today are translation studies. (P. 234)
2.3 Culture
There are various definitions of the term ‘culture’ by different scholars. Different definitions of culture reflect different understandings of the concept. Culture is a term that specialists in cultural studies try to avoid. The reason for such caution is that culture means almost everything. According to Hong Wie (1999) culture is an extremely complex concept covering a wide range of meaning; it embraces almost everything in the world whether material or spiritual. Larson (1984) defines culture as a “complex of beliefs, attitudes, values, and rules that a group of people share” (P.430). In other words, culture refers to the entire way of life of a society (De Pedro, 1999).
Many scholars have proposed definitions of culture which share some points, though they differ in many cases. Hudson’s (1990) definition of culture has in contrast with the “culture” which is found only in cultured circles _ in opera houses, universities, and the like. The term is used differently by different anthropologists, but always refers to some property of a community, especially those which might distinguish it from other communities. Tianmin (2006) also has stated that culture refers to all socially conditioned aspects of human life”. He believes that the undeniable fact is that the way people think is shaped by their culture. Culture conditions daily life; it includes history, social structure, religion, traditional customs, and everyday usage.
The definition of culture used by Newmark (1988) is: “I define culture as the way of life and its manifestation that is peculiar to a community that uses a particular language as its means of expression” (P.93). The exciting point in Newmark’s definition of culture is the inclusion of language as the culture’s means of expression. The same as Newmark is Bahameed (2008) who has defined culture as a cumulative experience, which includes knowledge, belief, morals, art, tradition, and any habits required by a group of people in a society. Culture also includes the total system of habits and behavior of which language is an essential subset.
Goodenough (1964, as cited in Hariyanto, 2010), however, has not pointed to language as a part of culture. As Goodenough has argued a society’s culture consists of whatever it is one has to know or believe in order to operate in a manner acceptable to its members, and do so in any role that they accept for any one of themselves. Moreover, Pavlovic (2003) states that “According to social scientists, culture consists of shared ideas and concepts (beliefs, values, norms, goals), and material possessions of a society that are passed on from one generation to the next” (P.1).
However complex this concept may be, it has been categorized in some levels by many theorists. According to De Pedro (1999) there are three levels of culture that are part of learned behavior patterns and perceptions:
– Cultural Traditions: the body of cultural traditions that distinguish a specific society.
– Sub-Cultural Traits: common identity, food tradition, dialect or language, and other cultural traits that come from a common ancestral background and experience.
– Cultural Universals: learned behavior patterns shared by all humanity collectively, no matter where people live in the world.
Moreover, Hong Wie (1999) divided the culture into three categories: material culture which refers to all products of manufacture, institutional culture referring to various systems and the theories that support them such as social, religious, ritual, and kinship systems and language, and mental culture which is people’s mentality and behaviors, their thought patterns, conception of values, and aesthetic tastes.
Goodenough (1981, cited in Mansouri, 2009) summarize the content of culture briefly quoted below:
a): the way in which people have organized their experience of their phenomenal world so as to give it structure as a phenomenal world of form their percept and concept.
b): the way in which people organized their experience of their phenomenal world so as to give it structure as a system of cause and effect relationship that is the prepositions and beliefs by which they explain events and accomplish their purposes.
c): the way in which people have organized their experience so as to structure their world in hierarchies of preferences namely their value or sentiment system.
d): the way in which people have organized their experience of their past efforts to accomplish recurring purpose into operational procedures for accomplishing this purpose in the future that is; set of grammatical principles of action and series of recipes for accomplishing particular end (p.62).
In her article entitled ‘Translation and culture’ Karamanian (2002) states “the term culture addresses three salient categories of human activity: ‘personal’, whereby we as individuals think and function as such; the ‘collective’, whereby we use function in a social context; and the ‘expressive’, whereby society expresses itself” (P.1).
2.4. Language and Culture
Many scholars talked about the relationship between the language and the culture of the society. As Bahameed (2008) states language is a manifestation of culture and distinctiveness of its speakers. It reflects the interests, ideas, customs, and other cultural aspects of a community. The vocabulary of a language manifests the culturally important areas of a group of people in a particular setting such as religious, social, and environmental areas.
Also according to Pavlovic (2003):
Culture is shared by all who live in a society; not to participate in the culture is, quite simply, not to be a member of society. A very important aspect of participating in a culture is being able to speak its language: language is thus a major requirement for either understanding or sharing in the life of a culture. And, indeed, there is no culture or society in the world which has not developed a kind of language in which to communicate”. (P.158)
There has always been a discussion about the opinion that language forms the culture or it is the culture of the society that forms the language. Regarding this matter Lotman’s (2001) theory states that “no language can exist unless it is stepped in the context of culture; and no culture can exist which does not have as its center, the structure of natural language” (P.211). As Snell-Hornby (1988) claims, traditionally there has been a dividing line between the language and the extra linguistic reality; however the contemporary approach sees language as the integral part of the culture.
Sapir-Whorf hypothesis (cited in Bassnett, 1991) exemplified the relationship between the language and its cultural influences. It states that language is a guide to a social reality. This hypothesis implies that language is not simply a mean of reporting experience but it is a way of defining (Steiner, 1975). Jiang Tianmin (2006) has similarly argued that language is part of culture, and concluded that translation is to be seen as a form of cross-cultural communication. Moreover, Vermeer (1989) states that “language is part of a culture” (P.222).
On the other hand there is the opinion by Newmark who has an opposite idea. It is also acknowledged that each language group has its own culturally specific features, so, Newmark (1988) operationally does “not regard language as a component or feature of culture” (P.95). He states “if it were so, translation would be impossible” (P.95). According to Newmark, Vermeer’s stance would imply the impossibility to translate whereas for the latter, translating the source language (SL) into a suitable from of TL is part of the translator’s role in transcultural communication. Based on his ideas language is an expression of culture and individuality of its speakers; so cultural meanings are intricately woven into the texture of the language. The deeper a text is embedded in its culture, the more difficult it is to work on. Each culture expresses its idiosyncrasies in a way that is “culture-bound”. That is, the origin and use of cultural words and idiomatic expressions are intrinsically and uniquely bound to the culture concerned, therefore, the deeper a text is embedded in its culture, the more difficult it is to be translated (Newmark, 1988). He states that language is not a mere collection of words and grammar rules, it is the expression of culture. It embodies the efforts of language community to conceptualize and interpret the world, as well as human experience and relations. As a result, language reflects the complex “personality” of such a community. Therefore, language is only interpreted and learned with relevance to a specific cultural context.
Others such as Bassnett (1991) found a way between these two extremes and put forward that “language, then, is the heart within the body of culture, and it is the interaction between the two that results in the contribution of life-energy” (p.14). According to him in this way both the language and culture have the same degree of importance and again this fact comes to everyone’s mind that the survival of both aspects is

دیدگاهتان را بنویسید