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r processes and events have different impacts on the structure of a language and how it is used by its speakers. Speakers of different languages exhibit different verbal and nonverbal behaviors in their interactions and the possibilities of misunderstanding are rife when two totally different cultures come into contact with each other. It is worth to mention here that what is interesting for people of a society within their own culture may not be enjoyable for people in another society. Each culture expresses its idiosyncrasies in a way that is “culture-bound”. That is, the origin and use of cultural words and idiomatic expressions are intrinsically and uniquely bound to the culture concerned. Since the culture of a community can determine its language, the vocabulary of a language are created and used by the people of that society according to their needs in the specific culture in which they are living. Therefore, translators obviously do not deal with translating individual words deprived of context, but deal with whole texts which are culturally embedded and based on a community of references predictably shared by most members of the source culture. The deeper a text is embedded in its culture, the more difficult it is to work on.
A “cultural presuppositions” item is created in situations when there is nonexistence on the different value of an item in the target language culture and a conflict will arise in the process of translating these kinds of items. It is clear that a word often does not mean exactly the same thing as its equivalent in another language. Ping (1999) defined Cultural presupposition as underlying assumptions, beliefs, and ideas that are culturally rooted, widespread, but rarely if ever described or defined because they seem so basic and obvious as not to require verbal formulation. Therefore, there may be some vocabulary in some cultures for which there is no equivalence in another one. Here is the point where translation problems will arise and there should be a solution.
Newmark (1988) believed that the translation of a work attempts to produce on its reader an effect as possible to that obtained on the readers of the original. However, with culturally-bound words this is often impossible. Indeed, the meaning which lies behind those kinds of expressions is always strongly linked to the specific cultural context where the text originates or with the cultural context it aims to re-create. As this statement implies, translators are permanently faces with the problem of how to treat the cultural aspects implicit in the source text (ST) and of finding the most appropriate technique of successfully conveying these aspects in the target language. These problems may vary in scope depending on the cultural and linguistic gap between the two languages concerned (Nida, 1985). Therefore, one of the most challenging tasks for all translators is how to render culture-specific elements in translating a foreign language. So, having a good understanding of both cultures can be helpful for the translator. S/he should look at differences between cultures which are a very important issue in translation of any kind and translation of literature is no exception. Indeed, not much attention has been paid to this problem by translation theories.
Literary translators face a far more complicated process. They require knowledge of linguistics, an appreciation of literature and an awareness of literary terms and concepts. Literature gives public form to private meanings and thus helps those who receive its messages to reach out to other human beings in the world, knowing that they share some of the same concerns and feelings. Therefore, one of the factors to be considered in translating literature is the role of culture. There are various cultures in the world and not all of them are the same. These cultures are different from one language to the other and this matter may cause some difficulties in translation of different works and in particular translation of literature. The present study aims to investigate the translators’ approaches and strategies in dealing with cultural presupposition items in a literature work and finding the most and the least frequent translation strategies in this regard. For the purpose of this research, the material is consisted of fifteen short stories included in James Joyce’s Dubliners. In selecting the corpus for the present research the focus was on those themes in which cultural items were more probable to appear.
1.2 Significance of the Study
As it has been stated before, translation is a process that contains the transformation of meaning from one language to another. The first language in this process is called source language (SL) and the second one is called Target language (TL). Both the source and target language have an underlying culture which shapes some underlying ideas, thoughts, beliefs and presuppositions among their speakers. During the translation process the translator comes across some translation difficulties regarding the differences between the source and target languages’ underlying cultures. These kinds of differences make the translation process more difficult in situations where the two underlying cultures are very different. In other words, where there is cultural focus, there is a translation problem because of the cultural gap or distance between the SL and TL. In order to solve such problems, namely cultural-based translation problems, the translator has to choose a way out of these situations. One of the possible solutions for dealing with these kinds of translation problems are the translation strategies that are provided by different scholars in the field of translation studies. However, it must be stated that most of the translators choose these translation strategies unconsciously.
In this study, in order to find out the most frequent translation strategies which have been used for solving culturally-based presuppositions, James Joyce’s ‘Dubliners’ (2001) and its Persian translation by Safarian and Hoseiny (1385) has been selected by the researcher as the corpus due to the fact that this book contains a great storage of culturally based presuppositions related to the Ireland, especially the Dublin and its people. The cultural presuppositions which exist in the stories of this book will be analyzed in order to find out the translation strategies which the translators have applied to deal with their translation problems.
Therefore, this study following other studies in translation was an attempt at finding the common strategies for translation of cultural presuppositions from English into Persian and determining which strategies are the most frequently used ones and which the least. It also aims to seek a regulated formulation of existing strategies applied by translators in translating culturally-based presuppositions from English to Persian. Most of the works in this regard were from Persian to English and most of the researchers worked on children literatures rather than other genres. As the researcher found no previous study carried out on locating common strategies for translation of cultural presuppositions from English into Persian in the genre of literature in Iran, this study aims at shedding light on the process of translating such culturally-based presuppositions bearing into consideration that these presuppositions are abundantly used in daily conversation, hoping that this study will draw the attention of translators to the translation of these items.
An important aspect of translation study may be to find out what translators do during the process of translation. This may have been not so much addressed in literary translation from English into Persian and may still have a large potential of academic work. Since cultural presuppositions are an intrinsic part of any language, translators have to deal with them in the process of translation. So any translator needs to know how to recognize and to translate them. Without having this knowledge, the translator will not be able to transfer their connotative meaning. Once this meaning is put through, the intended meaning of the original message will be available to and hence comprehensible for the readers.
Therefore, this study investigates the translators’ approaches and strategies in dealing with cultural presuppositions in translation. The researcher is hopeful to find the most frequent strategies for dealing with such culturally-based items at least in the genre selected. Such a pack will help those eager to enter into the field of literature’s translation to choose appropriate strategies in dealing with source text cultural presuppositions. Being aware of the translation difficulties caused by cultural differences and the appropriate solutions that translators choose for dealing with them, is one of the most important tasks of translators in order to provide an accepted translation. It can be said that the results of this study can offer a broad range of possibilities that give representative coverage to all the diversity of translation strategies which can be used to solve these translation problems. This awareness is also useful for translation teachers in order to provide practical translation tasks regarding such culturally-based translation problems.
This research is also significant as it provides the trainee translators and professional translators as well as translation educators with guidelines on translation of cultural presuppositions. Most translators at any level of proficiency may have difficulty

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