منابع و ماخذ پایان نامه Translation، tradition، interest

physical entity which can be illustrated, the usage of this strategy can be useful. Also when there is limitation of pace and when the text has to be short, concise and to the point, translators can illustrate the concept.
2.11.4 Hervey and Higgins’ Strategies
According to Hervey & Higgins (2002) cultural transposition has a scale from an extreme which is mostly based on source culture (exoticism) to the other extreme which is mostly based on target culture (cultural transplantation):
Exoticism Calque Cultural Borrowing Communicative Translation cultural transplantation
1) Exoticism
Exoticism is the extreme option identifying cultural foreignness in a TT. In other words, if the translators want to signal cultural foreignness in the TT, they will resort to the use of exoticism. A TT translated as an exotic manner is one which constantly resorts to linguistic and cultural features imported from the ST into TT with minimal adaptation. Therefore constantly signals the exotic source culture and its cultural strangeness. Often this is done with a short definition or paraphrase of the term, which may be added within the text or in the form of footnote. But the impact of a translated text which uses exoticism on the target audience is quite different from that of the ST on the source audience for whom the text has fewer features of a different culture. The degree of adaptation is very low here. The translation carries the cultural features and grammar of SL to TL. It is very close to transference.
2) Calque
A calque is an expression that consists of TL words and is acceptable as TL syntax, but is unidiomatic in the TL because it is modeled on the structure of an SL expression, and may create comprehension problems in the TT. Like all forms of cultural borrowing, calques represent a certain degree of exoticism and brings into the TT the cultural foreignness and strangeness of the source culture. However, some originally calqued expressions finally become standard TL cultural equivalents of their SL origins. Calque includes TL words but in SL structure therefore while it is unidiomatic to target reader but it is familiar to a large extent.
3) Cultural Borrowing
It is to transfer the ST expression verbatim into the TT. No adaptation of SL expression into TL forms. After a time they usually become a standard in TL terms. Cultural borrowing is very frequent in history, legal, social, political texts. This procedure, which is based on the transfer of ST expression verbatim into the TT, is applied when it proves impossible to find a suitable TL expression of origins for translating the ST expression. Cultural borrowing will be most frequent in texts on history or social or political matters. It is important to notice that cultural borrowing only presents the translators with a free choice in cases where previous translations have not provided a precedent for the verbatim borrowing of the ST expression. De Saussure’s la langue and la parol have been adopted in many languages and exist side by side, or even preferred to the local language terms.
4) Communicative Translation
When the ST uses a SL expression which is standard for a particular situation, (for example, when one is to introduce oneself to a stranger) the translator will try to find a TL expression standard for an equivalent target culture situation. In this case the translator will use a communicative translation (substitution). This procedure is obligatory in the translation of many culturally conventional situations that do not allow literal translation such as public notices, proverbs, conversational clichés, idioms, fixed expression, etc. In such cases the translator substitutes SL word with an existing concept in target culture. In cultural substitution the propositional meaning is not the same but it has similar impact on target reader. The literal translation here may sound comic. The degree of using this strategy sometimes depends on the license which is given to the translator by commissioners and also the purpose of translation.
5) Cultural Transplantation
At the end of the scale from exoticism is cultural transplantation by which the translator can transplant the entire setting of the ST into the TT. In this case the text is completely rewritten in an indigenous target culture setting. The whole text is rewritten in target culture. The TL word is not a literal equivalent but has similar cultural connotations to some extent. It is another type of extreme but toward target culture and the whole concept is transplanted in TL. This procedure is used very rarely. For instance, if we decide to translate a work of literature, which was originally written in a dialect, into a TL dialect, the result might be inadequate. A normal translation should avoid both exoticism and cultural transplantation.
2.11.5 Aixela’s Strategies
According to Aixela (1996: 60-64) the scale from a lesser to a greater degree of intercultural manipulation is divided in two major groups which are separated by their conservative or substitutive nature; namely by the conversation or substitution of the original references by other closer to the receiving pole.
1. Conservation
a. Repetition
By using this strategy the translator keeps as much as s/he can of the original reference. But in many cases it involves an increase in the exotic or archaic character of the CSI which, due to its linguistic and cultural distance, is unknown for the target audience.
b. Orthographic adaptation
This strategy consists of other procedures such as transcription and transliteration, which are applicable when the original reference is expressed in a different alphabet from the one used by target readers.
c. Linguistic (non-cultural) translation
In many cases, by noticing to the ‘pre-established translations within the intercultural corpus of the TL’ or “using linguistic transparency of the CSI’ the translators try to choose a very close reference to the original. At the same time, they offer a text which the audience can realize it as belonging to the cultural system of the ST and in this way the comprehensibility of the text increases. Usually this strategy is applied in the translation of units of measure and currencies such as dollar → dollars
d. Extra textual gloss
Sometimes after applying a strategy for a CSI, the translator tends to explain the meaning or implications of it. But it is not convenient to put this explanation within the text. Thus, s/he uses this strategy by marking it as footnote, endnote, glossary commentary, translation by brackets, in italics, etc. Such as Arnold Rothstein* → *Calebra gangster de los anos → famous gangster of the 1920s.
e. Intra textual gloss
This strategy is the same as extratextual gloss but sometimes the translators tend to consider the gloss as an inseparable part of the text. The reason is that they do not want to disturb the reader’s attention. Usually this procedure is useful for solving ambiguities. Such as St. Mark → Hotel St. Mark.
2. Substitution
a. Synonymy
This strategy is based on the stylistic grounds and usually the translators use synonyms or parallel references not to repeat CSI.
b. Limited universalization
Sometimes the translators think that the CSI is vague for the target readers or there is another choice therefore, try to replace it. Usually they search for another reference which belongs to the SL culture and at the same time is less specific. In this way they make the CSI more credible. Such as five grand → cinco mil dolares →five thousand dollars.
c. Absolute universalization
In this strategy, the basic situation is the same as the previous one but the translators do not find a better CSI or prefer to omit any foreign connotations and try to choose a neutral reference for the target readers. Such as corned beef → lonchas de jamon → slices of ham.
d. Naturalization
The translators tend to bring the CSI into the ‘intertextual corpus’ felt as specify by the TL culture. Such as Brigid → Brigida.
e. Deletion
For some reasons the translators tend to delete CSI in the TT: when ideological or stylistic grounds they consider the CSI unacceptable, when they believe the reader’s comprehension of a CSI is not important, when a CSI is vague and they do not want to use strategies such as gloss. Such as dark Cadillac sedan → Cadillac oscuro → dark Cadillac.
f. Autonomous creation
The translators rarely use this strategy but sometimes they think putting in some nonexistent cultural reference in the ST would be interesting for the target readers.
g. Compensation
This strategy consists of deletion plus autonomous creation at another point of the text with a similar effect.
h. Dislocation
It consists of displacement in the text of the same reference.
i. Attenuation
On ideological grounds it is the replacement of something ‘too strong, by something softer, more adequate to the target written tradition or to what could be expresses by readers.’
2.11.6 Vinay and Darblenet’s Strategies
Vinay and Darbelnet (2000, Munday 2001) identified two general translation strategies which are direct translation and oblique translation. Both strategies consist of several procedures. Direct translation includes:
1. Borrowing:
In this strategy the SL word is directly taken into the TL as it is, such as Russian rouble, datcha, etc, that are used in English to fill a gap in the TL. This process sometimes will be employed to add a local color to the SL word.
2. Calque (Loanshift)
This is ‘special kind of borrowing’ where the SL expression or

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