1) A name is a linguistic cultural element, and an author uses it for its associative value. It resists translation; therefore its evocative value is lost. Indian address their elders in plural and in this way respect them. The translator cannot substitute he/she because the cultural meaning of the use of plural address would be omitted.
2) Social relationships are also cultural elements. In India, people used to live with their extended families, which resulted in a need to address each relative. Since this concept of extended family living is unheard of in western countries, the English language lacks the corresponding terms.
3) Articles of dress or Ornaments in Indian culture have symbolic meaning beyond them; therefore resist translation. For example, some ornaments are used only by a woman whose husband is alive. There are some restrictions for a widow and this concept of widowhood does not exist in western culture.
4) Food values or the flavor behind a food or its significance is untranslatable to an audience who has never heard of it. During some Indian festivals certain foods are served and the Indian readers understand the reason or some religious concepts behind them.
5) Customs and traditions are part of a culture. Be it marriage, funeral or festival; the significance or hidden symbolism behind it becomes a stumbling block for the translator.
6) Beliefs and feelings change from culture to culture. In Indian culture the color white may represent purity and black evil, but it may not be the same in another culture.
7) Religious elements, myths, legends and the like are major components of any culture. They represent major hurdles in translating a text.
8) Lastly, geographical and environmental elements are also part of one’s culture. For instance, the Chinese language had different words for different types of ants but for Indians all kinds of ants are ants.
2.9.3 Pavlovic’s Classification
Pavlovic (2003) compared British and Croatian culture-specific concepts in translation. They can be categorized as follow:
This area includes different aspects of nature, such as winds (bure, jugo), plains, and hills (highlands, lowlands), and other geographic concepts (Lake District), as well as flora (blitra) and fauna.
2) Everyday life
It encompasses types of dwellings (bungalow), household appliances (kehle), food (gravy), meals (rucak can be either lunch or dinner), clothes including parts of national customs (Sporran), means of transport (double-decker), and public services (British Telecom).
3) Material culture
It comprises different products, trade marks in particular. Material culture comprises different products; trend marks in particular. There might be a change in the situation for the translator if a product becomes well-known in the target culture.
These items relate to historical events, institutions, functions and personalities (Georgian architecture), literature including different characters from works of art well known in the source culture (Humpty Dumpty), as well as famous quotations (najlipsa); folklore and tradition (Santa Claus).
The predominant religion in Croatia is Catholicism, while most Britons belong to one of the Protestant denominations. IF a Croatian translator translates rector’s daughter as rektorova kci, most Croatians will think it refers to the offspring of the head of a university and choosing Catholic functional equivalents can be misleading.
Until 1990, the economic system in Croatia was socialist ‘self-management’, but the situation changed and the country now has a free-market company. The major problem is how to translate concepts, which relate to stock exchange, money market, equity or commodities into Croatian.
7) Political and administrative functions and institutions
This area was of translation difficulties during communist rule in Croatia for it generated its own terminology.
8) The armed forces
The armed forces and their ranks and formations are different in the two societies, for example in Croatian vojska means not only the army, but also the armed forces.
The education systems in the two countries are quite different, which results in a lot of gaps (A-levels, O-levels, college)
10) Forms of address
One of the major sources of problems in this area is the fact that English has one pronoun, you, where Croatian distinguishes between ti and vi, the latter is used not only for the second person plural but also as a courteous form of address in the singular.
11) Gestures and habits
Some gestures and habits may be reflected in language, such as the old fashioned Croatian greeting ljubim ruke (lit. I kiss your hand), which reflects the gesture of the time, but has no English equivalent.
This area is closely connected to economy. A Croatian translator has to choose between pay, wages, salary and income, each of which has a specific meaning in English.
13) Leisure and entertainment
This area includes sports (cricket, Rugby), games (bridge), places where people go out (Pub), things to do (Karaoke) and so forth.
2.10 Translation Strategies
Krings (1986, as cited in Rayisi Dehkordi, 2010) has defined translation strategy as “translator’s potentially conscious plans for solving concrete translation problems in the framework of a concrete translation task” (p.18). According to Hatim & Mason (1990, cited in Lohrasbi, 2009) strategies of translation refers to a technique used by a translator to solve problem. It can be optional or obligatory.
On the object of strategies of translation, Venuti (1998) held the idea that “strategies of translation involve the basic tasks of choosing the foreign texts to be translated and developing a method to translate it. Both of these tasks are determined by a various factors: cultural, economic, and political” (P.240). However, the many different strategies that have appeared since the distant past can perhaps be divided into two large categories. He has continued to explain in details what the two large categories are: A translation project may conform to values currently dominating the large TL culture, taking a conservative and openly assimilationist approach to the foreign text, approaching it to support domestic canons, publishing trends, and political alignments. Alternatively, a translation project may resist and aim to revise the dominant culture by drawing on the marginal, resulting foreign text excluded by domestic canons, recovering residual emergent ones (for example, new cultural forms). Strategies in producing translations inevitably emerge in response to domestic cultural situations. But some are deliberately domesticating in their handling of the foreign text, while others can be described as foreignising, motivated by an impulse to preserve linguistic and cultural differences by deviating from prevailing domestic values.
Some theoreticians (see for example Seguinot, 1989, cited in Rayisi Dehkordi, 2010) have distinguished two types of translation strategies: global and local. Global strategies – product-related – are those dealing with whole texts and general principles. They relate to what happens to texts. However, local strategies – process-related – refer to text segments and to specific activities in relation to the translator’s problem-solving and decision-making. They relate to what happens in the process. Product-related strategies involve the basic tasks of choosing the SL text, and developing a method to translate it. However, process-related strategies are a set of – loosely formulated – rules or principles which a translator uses to reach the goals determined by the translating situation.
Many scholars believe that strategies are heuristic and flexible in nature, and their adaptation implies a decision influenced by adjustments in the translator’s objectives. Mette Hjort (1990) for instance, has demonstrated that norms, rules, and appropriateness conditions are liable to change. Translations made at different times, therefore, tend to be made under different conditions and turn out differently, not because they are good or bad, but because they have been produced to satisfy different demands. Once certain basics have been mastered, quality in translation is not a matter of right or wrong, but of using the appropriate strategy in a given communicative situation. That is, there is not any confirmed and fixed rule for translating a text, and it is determined by the context in which the text is situated.
In this regard, Ivir (1987, cited in Rayisi Dehkordi, 2010) notes that:
In planning his translation strategy, the translator does not make a one-time decision on how he will treat unmatched elements of culture; rather, even if he has established an overall order of preferences, he usually makes a new decision for each such element and for its each use [sic] in an act of communication.
All together as Nida (1964) mentions there are four basic requirements for a translation:
a) Making sense
b) Conveying the spirit and manner of the original
c) Having a natural and easy way of expression
d) Producing a similar response
2.11 Translation Strategies for Cultural Presuppositions
When faced with unshared elements of culture that is, of extralinguistic and linguistic experience between the original sender and the ultimate receiver, the translator has a variety of strategies procedures at her disposal including literal and free translation, communicative translation