منابع و ماخذ پایان نامه Translation، semantic

translating cultural presuppositions in some texts or contexts. Therefore, being aware of the most and the least frequency used strategies adopted by translators, the trainee translators may be more successful in their choices. In addition to its pedagogical implications, this study will prove significant so that it can help translators who are seeking to produce new translations of cultural presuppositions. It may make it feasible for them to know strategies that have been of great importance for the previous translators. Therefore this study helps understand the techniques applied by translator for English into Persian translation of cultural presuppositions appearing in James Joyce’s Dubliners.
1.3 Statement of the Problem
In our modern life, the process of translation has made the world a much smaller place, allowing different peoples and different cultures and languages to interact more frequently. Today, translated materials attract more and more readers, in many different countries and language groups. Based on this enthusiasm, in a globalized market, translation quality is an essential part for the international success of books; therefore, translation should be accurate, comprehensible, credible, and give the impression of the original text.
The existence of cultural gaps between two different languages and cultures, create some problems for translators. Different languages employ words or expressions which represent concepts that cannot be found in other speech communities. Even if close equivalents are found, they can rarely reveal and convey the message. One of the major problems facing a translator is how to find equivalences for items and terms which are culturally presupposed by the SL reader. The correct interpretation and transfer of these cultural presuppositions play a very important role in the translation process.
Translation of these cultural presuppositions which is an impossible part of any language is one of the most difficult problems facing a translator. S/he has to determine how to find lexical and situational equivalents for objects and events which are unknown in the receptor culture; that is, there is not a corresponding word or phrase in the receptor language easily available for the translation. When the concept to be translated refers to something which is unknown in the receptor culture, then the translator’s task becomes more difficult. The translator will not just be looking for an appropriate way to refer to something which is already part of the experience of the receptor language reader, but s/he will also be looking for a way to express a concept which is new to the speakers of that language. The translator facing such a problem tries to find adequate strategies to deal with it. S/he attempts to find a way to transfer the message of the word or phrase. The main problem intended to be studied in the course of this study is therefore the most and the least frequent strategies for translating cultural presuppositions used by the translator.
There have been various studies on cultural translations and the cultural transfer of meaning between different languages. However there is a cultural gap when the utterances are translated from other languages into Persian and little attempt is being made accordingly in Iran. With regard to this study and other studies that have been done on these aspects of language by different scholars, the value system of a culture is reflected in cultural presuppositions and little problem of misunderstanding or cultural gaps take place when they share the same language and culture; the problem arises when they go beyond the boundaries of their culture. In spite of the importance of cultural presuppositions which are abundantly used in daily conversation, the researcher found no previous study conducted on translation of this kind of items. Therefore the present study aims at finding the most frequent strategies for translation of cultural presuppositions.
This study is conducted mainly to the lack of a systematic regulation for translating culturally-based presuppositions. Because the translation of cultural presuppositions are very challenging for translators and also because of the inseparable relationship between translation and cultures of SL and TL; translators have to take cultural presuppositions as serious. The ultimate purpose of this study is to find common strategies applied for translation of cultural presuppositions, appearing in the book of Dubliners written by James Joyce translated form English to Persian. Therefore the researcher made an attempt to report the findings of an empirical study consisting fifteen short stories of the Dubliners translated form English into Persian studied from the point of view of strategies used in translating cultural presuppositions in empirical situations. Its purpose is to consider the translation strategies which translators select in order to solve the translation problems of cultural presuppositions. In other words, it aims to take a close look at different translation strategies which were applied to solve the translation problems of cultural presuppositions and find any possible regulation in using these translation strategies. Moreover it tries to make a list of the least and the most frequently applied translation techniques and strategies by professional translators.
1.4 Research Questions
To fulfill the purpose of this study and to focus more clearly in this process, the researcher formulated the following research questions:
– What are the translation strategies which were used in the English to Persian translation of James Joyce’s the ‘Dubliners’ for dealing with cultural presuppositions?
– Which of the used translation strategies for dealing with cultural presuppositions are the most and the least frequent ones?
1.5 Definition of the Key Terms
In order to avoid any probable misconceptions, and help the readers to go through the study with a clear-cut understanding of the major concepts discussed in the study, all the key terms need to be defined and clarified on the onset. These definitions help to establish the frame of reference with which the researcher approaches the problem.
Source Language (SL): the language out of which a translation is made (Richards, Platt, and Plattfirs, 1985).
Target Language (TL): the language into which a translation is made (Richards et al., 1985)
Culture: Culture is an extremely complex concept covering a wide range of meaning; it embraces almost everything in the world whether material or spiritual. According to Newmark (1988) culture is “the way of life and its manifestations that are peculiar to a community that uses a particular language as its means of expression” (P.94).
Source language culture: The content item referring specifically to the Source language (Newmark, 1988).
Target language culture: The content item referring specifically to the Target language (Newmark, 1988).
Cultural Gap: Dagut (1981) states that, cultural gaps are caused by community-specific referents in one community and their absence in another culture.
Cultural Presuppositions: Cultural presuppositions are “underlying assumptions, beliefs, and ideas that are culturally rooted” (Ping, 1999, P.2).
Translation Strategies: Venuti (1998) held the idea that “strategies of translation involve the basic tasks of choosing the foreign texts to be translated and developing a method to translate it. Both of these tasks are determined by a various factors: cultural, economic, and political” (P.240). Here all methods, techniques, and procedures of translating are regarded as strategies. In the present study this term is referred to different translation strategies based on Newmark’s (1988) categorization.
1.6 Limitations and Delimitations
There are obviously obstacles in the way of every research, this research being not an exception. Like any other research project, this study has some limitations and delimitations.
Moreover, regarding the research limitations it must be stated that, the present study was supposed to be performed on the Persian translation of the James Joyce’s ‘Ulysses’, because it was supposed to be written in a period of time when the culture and its manifestations were of great importance for its writer. However because its Persian translation did not get the publication’s right so far, the researcher selected another work of the same author as the corpus of the study.
Regarding the research delimitations, because of the time limitations, among all different concepts in linguistics and translation studies, the present study focuses only on the analysis of cultural presuppositions among the different kinds of presuppositions, such as philosophical presuppositions, semantic presuppositions, and pragmatic presuppositions. As it is clear, in the investigation of translation strategies for dealing with cultural presuppositions, the higher the number of the corpus involved in the study, the more precise and generalizable the result will be. Owing to the lack of time, just one short story book – James Joyce’s Dubliners – in the genre of literature which contains fifteen stories was investigated in the process of this research. Because of the limited number of books analyzed in this study and the selected genre, the result may not be generalizable to other kinds (genres) of the literature. This book has been selected because of its main theme and the researcher ignores other genres since the occurrence of cultural presuppositions in this genre are supposed to be high. Moreover,

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