منابع و ماخذ پایان نامه Translation، pronunciation، Paraphrase

(substitution), borrowing (the use of ‘exotic’ expressions), calques, and cultural transplantation. In all these procedures communication as achieved through the minimization of differences, and the reduction of ‘the unknown to the known, the private to the common, and the unshared to the shared (Pavlovic, 2003). Considering all these fact and ideas, different techniques and strategies have been developed.
Newmark(1988) maintains that translation problems caused by culture specific words arise when they are intrinsically and uniquely bound to the culture concerned and, therefore, are related to the ‘context of a cultural tradition. Nida (1964) proposes that the purpose of the translation will determine the kind of approach for cultural background: when the translation expects a specific response from the audience, the translator will have to adapt and modernize the cultural background but when the purpose is to communicate the date of a specific event, the cultural background has to be represented in a faithful manner.
In what follows, translation strategies claimed appropriate for rendering cultural presuppositions as distinguished by leading scholars in the field of translation studies will be considered in some detail. The actual choice of a particular strategy depend on a verity of factors such as the purpose of the TT, the intended readership, generic and textual constraints of a text/ publication and the importance of the cultural item itself. Here all methods, techniques and procedures of translating are considered as strategies.
2.11.1 House’s Strategies
House (1977, cited in Munday, 2001) distinguished between two types of translation strategies. The first type is an ‘overt translation’. She believes that “an overt translation is one in which the addressees of the translation text are quite ‘overtly’ not being directly addressed” (P.93). Through this type of translation the readers know that they are reading a translation and are completely aware of the differences between the functions of the two texts. The second type is a ‘covert translation’ which according to House “is a translation that enjoys the status of an original source text in the target culture” (P.94). The function of this type is the representation, recreation, and reproduction of the same function of the original text into the translated text.
2.11.2. Newmark’s Strategies
Newmark (1988) has written about some procedures that are applied in translation of different texts. These procedures are regarded as translation strategies in this study and they are described below:
1. Transference (loan word, transcription)
It is the process of transferring a SL word to a TL text as a translation procedure. It is the same as Catford’s transference and includes transliteration, which relates to the conversion of different alphabets.
2. Naturalization
This procedure succeeds transference and adapts the SL word first to the normal pronunciation, then to the normal morphology (word-form) of the TL.
3. Cultural equivalent
This is an approximate translation where a SL cultural word is translated by a TL cultural word; thus Palais Bourbon is translated as ‘(the French) Westminster’ which is an approximate cultural equivalent.
4. Functional equivalent
This common procedure, applied to cultural words, requires the use of a culture free word; sometimes with a new specific word; therefore, it neutralizes or generalizes the SL word and sometimes adds a particular; thus baccalaureat is translated as French secondary school leaving exam. This procedure, which is a cultural componential analysis, is the most accurate form of translating i.e. deculturalising a cultural word.
5. Descriptive equivalent
In translation, description sometimes has to be weighed against function. Thus Samurai is described as ‘the Japanese aristocracy from the eleventh to nineteenth century’; its function was ‘to provide officers and administrators’.
6. Synonymy
This procedure is used for a SL word where there is no clear one-to-one equivalent, and the word is not important in the text. A synonym is only appropriate where literal translation is not impossible and because the word is not important enough for componential analysis. (It’s a near TL equivalent to an SL word in the context, where a precise equivalent may or may not exist).
7. Through-translation
The literal translation of common collocation, names of organizations, the components of compound and phrases is known as calque or loan translation but Newmark prefers the term ‘through-translation’.
8. Shifts or transposition
A shift (Catford’s term) or transposition (Vinay and Darbelnet) is a translation procedure involving a change in the grammar from SL to TL.
9. Modulation
Vinay and Darbelnet coined the term ‘modulation’ to define a variation through a change of viewpoint of perspective and of category of thought.
10. Recognized translation
In this procedure the translators use the official or the generally accepted translation of any institutional term. If appropriate, you can gloss it and in doing so, indirectly show your disagreement with this official version.
11. Translation label
This is a temporary translation, usually of a new institutional term which should make in inverted comma, which can later be separately removed. It could be done through literal translation.
12. Compensation
This occurs when loss of meaning, sound effect, metaphor or pragmatic effect in one part of sentence is compensated in another part or in the next sentence.
13. Componential analysis
This is division of a lexical unit into its sense components, often one to –two, -three, -four translations.
14. Reduction and expansion
These are rather imprecise translation procedures, which a translator practices intuitively in some cases. However, for each, there is at least one shift:
a. SL adjective of substance plus general noun, TL noun: science linguistique, ‘linguistics’.
b. For expansion, a common shift is SL adjective, participle plus object: beleband, ‘life-giving’.
15. Paraphrase
This is an amplification or explanation of the meaning of a segment of the text. It is used in an ‘anonymous’ text when it is poorly written, or has important implications and omissions.
16. Couplets
Couplets, triplets, and quadruplets combine two, three or four of the mentioned procedures for dealing with a single problem.
17. Notes, additions, glosses
The additional information a translator may add to his/her version is usually cultural (according to differences between SL and TL culture), technical (relating to the topic) or linguistic (explaining wayward use of words), and is dependent on the requirements of the readership. Additional information in the text may take various forms:
1. within the text
a) as an alternative to the translated word
b) as an adjectival clause
c) as a noun in opposition
d) as a participial group
e) in brackets, often for a literal translation of a transferred word
f) in parantheses, the longest form of adition
g) classifier
2. Notes at the bottom of page
3. Notes at the end of chapter
4. Notes or glossary at the end of the book
From the mentioned procedures Newmark proposes two opposing method for the translation of cultural words and notions. As he mentions, ‘transference’ gives ‘local color’, keeping cultural names and concepts. Although placing the emphasis on culture, he claims this method may cause problems for the general readership and limit the comprehension of certain aspects. The importance of the translation in communication leads Newmark to propose ‘componential analysis’ which he describes as being “the most accurate translation procedure, which excludes the culture and highlights the message” (Newmark 1988: p.96).
2.11.3 Baker’s Strategies
Baker (1992, cited in Mansouri, 2009) classified strategies used by professional translators to deal with non-equivalence as:
1) Translation by more general word (superordinate)
This is one of the commonest strategies for dealing with many types of non-equivalence particularly in the area of prepositional meaning.
2) Translation by a more neutral/less expressive word:
3) Translation by cultural substitution
This strategy includes replacing a culture-specific item or expression with a TL item which does not have the same prepositional meaning but has similar effect on the target audience.
4) Translating using a loan word or loan word plus an explanation
Most of the time, this strategy is used to deal with culture-specific items, modern concepts and loan words. When such words are repeated for several times in a text, the translator has to use a loan word following with an explanation.
5) Translation by paraphrase using a related word
This strategy is used when the concept expresses by the source item is lexicalized in the TL but in different form.
6) Translation by paraphrase using unrelated words
If the concept expressed by the source item is never lexicalized in the TL the use of paraphrase can be useful in some texts. Instead of a related word, the paraphrase may be based on modifying a superordinate or on unpacking the meaning of the source item, especially if the item is semantically complex.
7) Translation by omission
If the meaning by a particular item or expression is not necessary enough to the development of the text, translators can omit translating the word or expression in question.
8) Translating by illustrations
If the word which lacks an equivalent in the TL refers to a

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