منابع و ماخذ پایان نامه Translation، pronunciation، Paraphrase

which a language is spoken. Of the 280 examples of cultural presuppositions, 26 items were found in this category.
Table 9: Artistic
Table 9: Artistic
No.
Source Language
Target Language
Story
1
The Bohemian girl
نمایش دختر بوهمی
Eveline
2
Waltez
والس ها
The Boarding House
3
Contralto
کنترآلتو
A Mother
4
Killarney
تصنیف کیلارنی
A Mother
5
Prelude
پیش درآمد
The Dead
d) Historical Terms
Of the 280 examples of cultural presuppositions, 11 items were found in this category.
Table 10: Historical Terms
Table 10: Historical Terms
No.
Source Language
Target Language
Story
1
Florin
فلورین
Araby
2
Patagonians
پاتاگوئن ها
Eveline
3
Hallow Eves
شب های جشن هالوئن
Clay
4
The two murdered princes in the Tower
دو شاهزادۀ مقتول در برج لندن
The Dead
5
King Billy’s statute
مجسمۀ شاه بیلی
The Dead
4.2.1.5 Gestures and Habits
According to Newmark (1988) there is a distinction between the description and function of habits in different cultures. There are some actions and gestures which they occur in some cultures and not in others. Of the 280 examples of cultural presuppositions, only 2 items were found in this category.
Table 11: Gestures and Habits
Table 11: Gestures and Habits
No.
Source Language
Target Language
Story
1
Green stems on which girls tell fortunes
ساقه های سبز علف که دخترها برای بخت گشایی گره می زنند
An Encounter
2
Gossip of the tea-table
غیبت گویی های سر میز چای
Araby
4.2.2 Translation Strategies
The categorization of translation strategies, used in this research is also based on Newmark’s (1988) model introduced in chapter 3 of this thesis. As it was mentioned before, not all of the mentioned translation strategies were used in translating what is called cultural presuppositions in this study. In fact, among 17 translation strategies of Newmark, only 11 strategies have been used and the other 6 strategies – Modulation, Recognized translation, Translation Label, Compensation, Componential analysis, and Paraphrase have never been used in this research. In the following sections, a detailed description of each translation strategy and some examples of them relating to each short story are presented.
4.2.2.1 Transference
It is the process of transferring a SL word to a TL text as a translation procedure. It is the same as Catford’s transference and includes transliteration, which relates to the conversion of different alphabets. Of the 280 examples of cultural presuppositions, 12 items were translated by this strategy.
Table 12: Transference
Table 12: Transference
No.
Source Language
Target Language
Story
1
Polkas
پولکاها
The Boarding House
2
The Soprano
سوپرانو
A Mother
3
Baritone
باریتون
A Mother
4
Brandy
برندی
Grace
5
Cardinal
کاردینال
Grace
As it can be seen all the above words are transferred from English to Persian. Of course the above examples are those in their translation process only this strategy has been used. In some other cases, another strategy is also applied as a complimentary strategy to make the meaning understandable.
4.2.2.2 Naturalization
This procedure succeeds transference and adapts the SL word first to the normal pronunciation, then to the normal morphology (word-form) of the TL. Of t

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