منابع و ماخذ پایان نامه Translation، interest، tradition

since the study does not aim to evaluate the quality of translation, the characteristics of the translators such as gender, age, native language, nationality, and last but not least their university degree is not considered by the researcher.
CHAPTER II
Review of the Related Literature
2.1 Introduction
Language is a perfect manifestation of the lifestyle or activity practiced in every unique culture. In the broad sense, every language is the symbolic representation of people and their historical and cultural backgrounds as well as their way of living and thinking. Newmark (1988) defines culture as “the way of life and its manifestations that are peculiar to a community that uses a particular language as its means of expression” (P.94). There is a distinction between the meaning built in one language with a specific culture and the one built in another. It can be said that different languages, following their underlying cultures, make their speakers think, produce, and perceive specifically.
Translation as a way to transfer the meaning of the source language to the target language is a kind of activity that involves not only two languages, but also two cultures. Like any other field of study, translation deals with all the aspects of human life such as social, industrial, and cultural. Therefore, the translators’ prime job is to transfer meaning from one language /culture to another language /culture. In other words it is not enough for the translator to have a good command of both the source and the target languages; s/he has to be completely aware of both the source and the target cultures. Otherwise stated s/he should be bicultural, as well as bilingual.
Each culture creates certain messages, connotations, and denotations. Therefore it is likely that many concepts occur in one language and culture but not in the other. Newmark (1988) believes that unless there is a cultural overlap between the source and the target language, there will be a translation problem. In other words, one of the major problems facing a translator is how to find equivalents for implicit ideas, opinions, and presuppositions, which have their bases in their underlying cultures. These culturally based presuppositions as Ping (1999) states “refers to underlying assumptions, beliefs, and ideas that are culturally rooted” (P.2).
Facing with unshared elements of culture between the source and target language, the translator has a variety of options to cope with difficult matters. S/he has to find out how to treat the cultural aspects of the ST and finding the most appropriate strategy to convey these aspects in the TL. In fact, this study looks at the translation phenomenon from a cultural point of view. It describes and explains translation for a theory which regards translation as a culture-bound phenomenon.
The main purpose of this chapter is to discuss the theoretical framework used for this particular study. This chapter therefore deals with the overview of relevant literature as regards the domains of translation, culture, cultural presuppositions, and translation strategies. It provides a detailed review of the literatures related to the domains which are combined in the present research. Full detail of every domain and clear links between the domains are provided to show the interdisciplinary nature of the present study.
2.2 Translation
According to Schaffner & Kelly Holms (1995), translation as an activity is almost as old as mankind, but the history of translation as a discipline dates back to no more than two decades ago. Savory (1968) states translation is as old as original authorship and has a history as honorable and as complex as that of any other branch of literature.
As Schaffner & Adab (2000) states, it was not, however until the second half of the twentieth century that developments in translation studies led to a more systematic view of the attempts to develop a theory of translation. According to Venuti (1998) in the 20th century, translators gained some institutional authority created by a worldwide proliferation of translator training programs and as a tool of scholarly publishing. The institutionalization of translation occurred in the 1950s and 60s at a time when linguistics was the main discipline in forming the study of translation. In the 1970s and 80s interest in the theory and practice of translation grew steadily. Translation became increasingly interdisciplinary because of its borrowing from conceptual and methodological paradigms of psychology, communicative theory, anthropology and also from culture and gender studies. He states that , in fact, in the late 1970s when a growing need for translation on literal texts was felt, a shift from a mere linguistic translation to a more functional and socio-cultural study of translation started to occur, first in Germany and then in other countries. Consequently, the conceptual apparatus which give life to translation research in the 20th century is a collection of the theories and methodologies related either to the previous development in linguistics such as pragmatics, critical discourse analysis, computerized corpora, or to poly system, skopos, post-structuralism, feminism, and also to the developments in literary and cultural theory such as post colonialism, sexuality, and globalization.
As Savory (1968) says, gradually, translation turned into a topic of interest of a large group of people who even tried to formulate universal principles for translation. The truth is that there are no universally accepted principles of translation, because the only people who are qualified to formulate them have never agreed among themselves.
Different theorists proposed different definitions of the term ‘Translation’. According to Newmark (1981) “Translation is a craft consisting in the attempt to replace a written message and/or statement in one language by the same message and/or statement in another language” (P.7). He later states that the translation of a work attempts to produce on its reader an effect as possible to that obtained on the readers of the original and he called this translation a communicative translation.
Catford (1974) defines translation as follows the replacement of textual material in one language by equivalent textual material in another language. Jakobson (1959) also put forward three kinds of translation and defined the term interlingual translation as “An interpretation of verbal signs by means of some other languages” (P.114).
Others such as Nida and Taber (1982) believe that translating consists of reproducing in the receptor language the closest natural equivalent of the source language message, first in terms of meaning and secondly in terms of style. Miremadi (1991) defines translation as an act of replacing one interpretation in one language by a similar interpretation in another language
Shavit (1986) also believes that:
Actually the act of translation is understood here not in the traditional normative sense, but rather as a semiotic concept. Thus, translation is understood as part of a transfer mechanism – that is, the process, certain products are produced within the target system, which relate in various and complex ways to products of the source system. Hence, the final product of the act of translation is the result of the relationship between a source system and a target system. (P.111)
As Schaffner and Adab (2000) put, there is clearly a consensus amongst experts in translation studies that their object of study, i.e. translation, is a complex activity, involving expertise in a number of areas and skills that call for theories to come hand in hand with practices in the realm of translation. James Holmes (1972) one of the prominent figures in modern translation studies and researches claimed that the lack of a clear distinction between the branches of translation studies, as accepted in order and better-formulated disciplines such as linguistics, was one of the main obstacles to the development of research in this area.
Holmes (1972) divides the disciplines into two major areas: pure translation studies and applied translation studies. The former has the dual objective of describing translation phenomenon as they occur and developing principles for describing and explaining such phenomena. The first objective fails within the remit of descriptive translation studies. Within descriptive translation studies, she distinguishes between product-oriented DTS (text-focused studies which attempt to describe existing translation), process-oriented DTS (studies which attempt to investigate the mental process that takes place in translation) and function oriented DTS (studies which attempt to describe the function of translation in the socio-cultural context).
Here it is clear that these definitions by famous theoreticians exclude the factor of culture in translation. Baker (1992, cited in Mansouri, 2009) believes that:
Translated texts record genuine communicative events and as such are neither inferior nor superior to other communicative events in any language. They are however, different and the nature of this different needs to be explored and recorded. More ever translation should be taken seriously by related disciplines such as linguistics, literary theory and cultural and communicative studies, not least because the disciplines can benefit from the result of research carried out in the field of translation. At the same time as a phenomenon which pervades almost every aspect of our lives and shapes our understanding of the world,

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