منابع و ماخذ پایان نامه pronunciation، Translation، Paraphrase

in many countries of sacred private property. American English has 26 words for the car. There are many vogue-words produced not only by innovations but by the sales man’s talk, and many Anglicism. In fiction, the names of various carriages are often used to provide local color and to connote prestige; in text books on transport, an accurate description has to be appended to their transferred word. Now the names of planes and cars are often near-internationalism for educated readerships. The names of various carriages provide local color and connote prestige.
3) Social culture – work and leisure
In considering social culture, one has to distinguish between denotative and connotative problems of translation. When there are some words or expressions in a language which do not exist in Anglophone Countries, there is rarely a translation problem, since the words can be transferred, have approximate one-to-one translation or can be functionally defined. The obvious cultural words that denote leisure activities in Europe are the national games with their lexical set. To these must be added the largely English non-team games, and large number of card games, the gambling games and their lexical sets being French casinos. Based on the underlying culture, different terms for work and leisure in the society can be specified.
4) Organizations, customs, ideas
a) Political and administrative: The political and social life of a country is reflected in its institutional terms. Where the little of a head of state (‘President’, ‘Prime Minister’, ‘King’) or the name of a parliament (Assemble National or Camera dei Deputati or ‘senate’) are ‘transparent’, that is, made up of ‘international’ or easily translated morphemes, they are through translated (‘National Assembly’, ‘Chamber of Deputies’) where the name of a parliament is not (readily) ‘translatable’ it has recognized official translation for administrative documents, but is often transferred for an educated readership and glossed for a general readership. Names of ministers are usually literally translated, provided they are appropriately descriptive. When a public body has a ‘transparent’ name, the translation depends on the ‘setting’: in official documents, and in serious publications such as text books, the title is transferred and, where appropriate, literally translated. Informally, it could be translated by a cultural equivalent. Where a public body or organization has an ‘opaque’ name, the translator has first to establish whether there is a recognized and is appropriate in the setting; if not, in a formal information text, the name should be transferred, and a functional, cultural-free equivalent given. Any series of local government institutions and posts should be transferred when the terms are unique and consistency is required.
b) Religious: The language of the other world religions tends to be transferred when it becomes of TL interstate commonest words being naturalized. American Bible scholars and linguistics have been particularly exercised by cultural connotations and because of the translation of similes of fruit and husbandry into where they are inappropriate. The language of each religion is specific.
c) Artistic: Artistic terms are closely related to the culture and society in which a language is spoken. The translation of artistic terms that refer to movements, processes and organizations generally depends on the general knowledge of the readers.
d) Historical terms: The first principle is not to translate historical terms, whether the translation make sense (is ‘transparent’) or not (is ‘opaque’), unless they have generally accepted translations. In academic texts and educated writing, they are usually transferred, with, where appropriate, a functional or descriptive term with as much descriptive detail as is required. In popular texts, the transferred word can be replaced by the functional or descriptive term.
5) Gestures and habits
There is a distinction between the description and function of habits in different cultures. There are some actions and gestures which they occur in some cultures and not in others.
After identifying the cultural presuppositional items in the source text, their Persian equivalents have been identified in the target text. All the cultural presuppositions written with their Persian translated equivalents have been classified based on the translation strategies which have been used in their translation process. In order to find out the most and the least frequent translation strategies to deal with translation problems, Peter Newmark’s (1988) categorization of translation strategies for dealing with cultural gaps have been used. He classified translation strategies as follow:
1. Transference (loan word, transcription)
It is the process of transferring a SL word to a TL text as a translation procedure. It is the same as Catford’s transference and includes transliteration, which relates to the conversion of different alphabets.
2. Naturalization
This procedure succeeds transference and adapts the SL word first to the normal pronunciation, then to the normal morphology (word-form) of the TL.
3. Cultural equivalent
This is an approximate translation where a SL cultural word is translated by a TL cultural word which is an approximate cultural equivalent.
4. Functional equivalent
This common procedure, applied to cultural words, requires the use of a culture free word; sometimes with a new specific word; therefore, it neutralizes or generalizes the SL word and sometimes adds a particular; thus baccalaureat is translated as French secondary school leaving exam. This procedure, which is a cultural componential analysis, is the most accurate form of translating i.e. deculturalising a cultural word.
5. Descriptive equivalent
In translation, description sometimes has to be weighed against function. Thus Samurai is described as ‘the Japanese aristocracy from the eleventh to nineteenth century’; its function was ‘to provide officers and administrators’.
6. Synonymy
This procedure is used for a SL word where there is no clear one-to-one equivalent, and the word is not important in the text. A synonym is only appropriate where literal translation is not impossible and because the word is not important enough for componential analysis. (It’s a near TL equivalent to an SL word in the context, where a precise equivalent may or may not exist).
7. Through-translation
The literal translation of common collocation, names of organizations, the components of compound and phrases is known as calque or loan translation but Newmark prefers the term ‘through-translation’.
8. Shifts or transposition
A shift (Catford’s term) or transposition (Vinay and Darbelnet) is a translation procedure involving a change in the grammar from SL to TL.
9. Modulation
Vinay and Darbelnet coined the term ‘modulation’ to define a variation through a change of viewpoint of perspective and of category of thought.
10. Recognized translation
In this procedure the translators use the official or the generally accepted translation of any institutional term. If appropriate, you can gloss it and in doing so, indirectly show your disagreement with this official version.
11. Translation label
This is a temporary translation, usually of a new institutional term which should make in inverted comma, which can later be separately removed. It could be done through literal translation.
12. Compensation
This occurs when loss of meaning, sound effect, metaphor or pragmatic effect in one part of sentence is compensated in another part or in the next sentence.
13. Componential analysis
This is division of a lexical unit into its sense components, often one to –two, -three, -four translations.
14. Reduction and expansion
These are rather imprecise translation procedures, which a translator practices intuitively in some cases. However, for each, there is at least one shift:
a. SL adjective of substance plus general noun, TL noun: science linguistique, ‘linguistics’.
b. For expansion, a common shift is SL adjective, participle plus object: beleband, ‘life-giving’.
15. Paraphrase
This is an amplification or explanation of the meaning of a segment of the text. It is used in an ‘anonymous’ text when it is poorly written, or has important implications and omissions.
16. Couplets
Couplets, triplets, and quadruplets combine two, three or four of the mentioned procedures for dealing with a single problem.
17. Notes, additions, glosses
The additional information a translator may add to his/her version is usually cultural (according to differences between SL and TL culture), technical (relating to the topic) or linguistic (explaining wayward use of words), and is dependent on the requirements of the readership. Additional information in the text may take various forms:
1. within the text
a) As an alternative to the translated word
b) As an adjectival clause
c) As a noun in opposition
d) As a participial group
e) In brackets, often for a literal translation of a transferred word
f) In parentheses, the longest form of addition
g) Classifier
2. Notes at the bottom of page
3. Notes at the end of chapter
4. Notes or glossary at the end of the book
Based on the aim of this study that is investigating the frequency of the translation strategies, evaluating the quality of the translation will not be covered in this study.
3.4 Design
According to Holmes’ (1972) map of translation studies, this research is a product-oriented descriptive research

دیدگاهتان را بنویسید