منابع و ماخذ پایان نامه interest، semantic

n or structure is transferred in a literal translation.
3. Literal translation
This is ‘word-for-word’ translation, which is described as being common between the languages which are from the same family and culture.
Vinay and Darbelnet suggest oblique translation for those cases where literal translation is not possible. This strategy covers four procedures:
4. Transposition (shift)
This process is a change of one part of speech for another without changing the sense. It can be both obligatory and optional. It is the most common structural change undertaken by translators.
5. Modulation
This changes the semantic and the point of view of the SL. It can also be obligatory and optional.
6. Equivalence
This term refers to cases where languages describe the same situation by different stylistic or structural means. It is particularly used in translating idioms and proverbs.
7. Adaptation
This strategy involves changing the cultural reference when a situation is the source culture does not exist in the target culture.
2.11.7 Wiersema’s Strategies
Wiersema (2004) in his essay “globalization and translation” provided three options for the translation of cultural elements:
1- Adopting the foreign word without any explanation.
2- Adopting the foreign word with extensive explanations.
3- Rewriting the text to make it more comprehensible to the target language audience.
2.12 Concluding points
As it was mentioned before, the main goal of this chapter was to deals with the overview of relevant literatures regarding the main domains of this study that are translation, culture, cultural presuppositions, and translation strategies which were all combined together in the present research. Full details of every domain and the clear links between the domains were provided to show the interdisciplinary nature of the present study. Under the light of what was discussed in the previous sections and a detailed review of all the related literatures, the researcher has selected the method and procedures of the present study.
Reviewing all the previous related literature, the researcher concluded that, analyzing the frequency of the translation strategies which will be used in the translation process to solve the translation problems regarding cultural-presupposition items due to the fact that being aware of such difficulties and their appropriate solutions are one of the most important tasks of translators. Newmark’s (1988) categorization which places “foreign cultural words” in 5 categories has been selected as the basement for extracting all the words, phrases, and clauses carrying cultural bases. Moreover in order to find out the most frequent translation strategies to deal with translation problems, Newmark (1988) categorization of translation strategies for dealing with cultural gaps which includes 17 strategies, will be used.
Chapter III
Methodology
3.1 Introduction
In the process of translating a text, a translator may face some translation problems, which are caused because of the cultural differences between two different languages, i.e. Source Language and Target Language. The purpose of this study is to find out the culturally-presupposed items in the source text, i.e. James Joyce’s ‘Dubliners’ and to compare their original meanings with their written equivalents in Persian translation of the same book by Safarian & Hoseiny (1385). In this way, the translation strategies applied in translating the cultural presuppositions appeared in the Source text will be identified. As it was mentioned in chapter two, based on Ping (1999), these cultural presuppositions are those underlying assumptions, beliefs, and ideas that are culturally rooted, widespread, but rarely if ever described or defined because they seem as basic and obvious as not to require verbal formulation. In this study Newmark’s (1988) procedures of translation were used to analyze the collected data. The items considered in his model were regarded as translation strategies to be used in the translation of cultural presupposition items found in the chosen book.
Under the light of what was discussed in the two preceding chapters of this research regarding the background and purpose of the study and a detailed review of the previous related literatures, the researcher will concentrate on the particulars of the method and procedures of the present study in this chapter. The corpus of the study and the reason for its selection will be introduced. In addition the theoretical framework and the design of the study will be discussed in full details. The chapter continues with a summary of the procedures that the researchers follow and it ends with an explanation of data collection and data analysis’ process. This study looks at the translation phenomenon from a cultural point of view. It describes and explains translation for a theory which regards translation as a culture-bound phenomenon.
3.2 Corpus
To accomplish the objectives of the study, the English novel of James Joyce, the “Dubliners” (2001) has been selected as the Source text and its Persian translation by Safarian and Hoseiny (1385) as the Target text. The source text has been given a close look and the phrases, expressions, and terms carrying cultural presuppositions have been extracted. The extracted items were compared with their Persian equivalents in order to identify the most and the least frequent translation strategies in their translation process.
Based on the detailed studying of the related articles and researchers in the area of the translation problems that are caused by cultural differences and the translation strategies to solve these kinds of problems, the researcher observed that the genre of short story along its Persian translation has not been worked on so far in this regard. Therefore it was concluded that it would be better to select the corpus of the study among short stories which have deep roots in the culture.
Moreover, after a brief skimming of some short stories based on their writing’s time and conditions, the researcher found out that this book which is a collection of fifteen short stories by James Joyce contains a lot of culturally-based items about Ireland, especially the Dublin and its people. The fifteen stories were meant to be a naturalistic depiction of the Irish middle class life in and around Dublin in the early years of the 20th century. The reason of such existence is that the stories were written at the time when Irish nationalism was at its peak, and a search for a national identity and purpose was raging; at a crossroads of history and culture, Ireland was jolted by various converging ideas and influences.
In addition, among some other Persian translation of this book, the translation made by Safaryan & Hoseiny (1385) has been selected because as it has been stated in the part of the translator’s note in its translation, the translator faced many problems in finding equivalents for religious terms and literary and culturally-based items, and he spend a lot of time for thinking and making decision to solve the translation problems of Joyce’s text. Therefore, being a great challenge for the translator regarding finding appropriate equivalents for cultural items, this version of the translation has been selected as the Persian corpus of the study or the Target text.
3.3. Theoretical Framework
This study aims to investigate the frequency of translation strategies which were used in the translation process to solve the translation problems regarding cultural-presupposition items. After studying the classifications made by famous scholars like Newmark(1988), Thriveni(2001), and Pavlovic(2003), the researcher selected Newmark’s (1988) categorizations as the theoretical framework for identifying these cultural specific items, namely culturally-based presuppositions in the source text. As it was discussed in the previous chapter, he put foreign cultural words in several categories:
1) Ecology
Because of the geographical differences between cultures, many countries have some ‘local’ words for different ecological features. The geographical features can be normally distinguished from other cultural terms in that they are usually value-free, politically and commercially. Nevertheless, their diffusion depends on the importance of their country of origin as well as their degree of specificity. All these words would normally be transferred, with the addition of a brief culture –free third term where necessary in the text.
2) Material culture (artifacts)
a) Food: Food is for many the most sensitive and important expression of national culture; food terms are subject to the widest verity of translation procedures. In principle, one can recommend translation for words with recognized one to one equivalents and reference, plus a neutral term, for the rest for the general readership.
b) Clothes: Clothes as cultural terms may be sufficiently explained for TL general readers if the genetic noun or classifier is added, or again, if the particular is of no interest, the genetic word can simply replace it. However, it has to be born in mind that the function of the generic clothes terms is approximately constant, indicating the part of the body that is covered the description varies depending on climate and material used.
c) Housing: Many language communities have a typical house which for general purposes remains untranslated.
d) Transport: Transport is dominated American and the car, a female pet in English, a ‘bus’, a ‘motor’, a ‘crate’, a sacred symbol

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