منابع و ماخذ پایان نامه grammatical errors، interest

indicates that when analyzing the presupposition, a translator may find out that the occurrence of many problems actually results from the divergence in the cultural background between the TT and ST readers. Ping (1999) stated that ‘Cultural presuppositions’ merit special attention from translators because they can substantially and systematically affect their interpretation of facts and events in the source text without their even knowing it.
Moreover, translators and teachers of foreign languages need to become fully aware of cultural presuppositions. Ping (1999) suggested two reasons for this: First, a correct interpretation of the source message relies on an understanding of the relevant features of the source culture. In many cases, however, the presuppositions a translator harbors about the source culture may be based upon the realities of his or her own culture. If the source and target cultures differ significantly with respect to the issue at hand, the source message may be wrongly deciphered. The second reason that cultural presuppositions merit attention from translators and teachers of foreign languages is that the communicative errors they give rise to are usually more covert and harder to detect than grammatical errors and may therefore cause serious misunderstanding in the target reader.
2.9 Different Classifications of Cultural Presuppositions
Among all the famous scholars in the field of cultural studies, and translation studies, each provided a different categorization of cultural words, which are considered as cultural presuppositions’ classification in this study.
2.9.1 Newmark’s Classification
Newmark (1988) places ‘foreign cultural words’ in several categories:
1) Ecology
Due to the geographical differences between cultures, many countries have some ‘local’ words for different ecological features. The geographical features can be normally distinguished from other cultural terms in that they are usually value-free, politically and commercially. Nevertheless, their diffusion depends on the importance of their country of origin as well as their degree of specificity. Thus ‘plateau’ is not perceived as a cultural word and has long been adopted in Russian, German and English, but translated in Spanish and usually Italian. All these words would normally be transferred, with the addition of a brief culture –free third term where necessary in the text.
Examples: Winds, plants, plains- ‘prairies’, ‘steppes’, ‘tundras’, ‘pampas’, ‘savannahs’, ‘llanos’, ‘veld’- flora, and fauna: honey suckle, downs sirocco, tundra, pampas, tabuleiros (low plateau), plateau, selva (tropical rain forest), savanna, paddy field.
2) Material culture (artifacts)
a) Food: Food is for many the most sensitive and important expression of national culture; food terms are subject to the widest verity of translation procedures. Various settings: menus-straight, multilingual, glosses, cook books, food guides, tourist brochures; journalism increasingly contain foreign food terms. In principle, one can recommend translation for words with recognized one to one equivalents and reference, plus a neutral term, for the rest for the general readership.
Examples: ‘zabaglione’, ‘sake’, ‘kaisers’.
b) Clothes: Clothes as cultural terms may be sufficiently explained for TL general readers if the genetic noun or classifier is added: e.g. ‘shintigin trousers’ or ‘Basque skirt’, or again, if the particular is of no interest, the genetic word can simply replace it. However, it has to be born in mind that the function of the generic clothes terms is approximately constant, indicating the part of the body that is covered the description varies depending on climate and material used.
Examples: ‘anorak’, ‘kanga’ (Africa), ‘sarong’ (South Seas), ‘dhoti’ (India)
c) Housing: Many language communities have a typical house which for general purposes remains untranslated.
Examples: Palazzo (large house); hotel (large house); ‘chalet’, ‘bungalow’, hacienda, posada, pension, Kampong, Bourg, Bourgad, ‘low rise’, tower.
d) Transport: Transport is dominated American and the car, a female pet in English, a ‘bus’, a ‘motor’, a ‘crate’, a sacred symbol in many countries of sacred private property. American English has 26 words for the car. The system has spawned new features with their neologisms: ‘lay-by’, ‘round about’ (‘traffic circle’), ‘fly over’, ‘interchange’. There are many vogue-words produced not only by innovations but by the sales man’s talk, and many Anglicism. In fiction, the names of various carriages (Caleche, Cabriolet, ‘landlau’, ‘tilbury’, ‘coupe’, ‘phaeton’) are often used to provide local color and to connote prestige; in text books on transport, an accurate description has to be appended to their transferred word. Now the names of planes and cars are often near-internationalism for educated readerships: ‘747’, ‘727’, ‘DC-10’, ‘jumbo-jet’, ‘Mini’, ‘Metro’, ‘ford’, ‘BMW’, “Volvo’. The names of various carriages provide local color and connote prestige.
Examples: ‘bike’, ‘rickshaw’, ‘Moulton’, ‘cabriolet’, ‘Tilburg’, ‘Caleche’.
3) Social culture – work and leisure
In considering social culture, one has to distinguish between denotative and connotative problems of translation. When there are some words or expressions in a language which do not exist in Anglophone Countries, there is rarely a translation problem, since the words can be transferred, have approximate one-to-one translation or can be functionally defined. The obvious cultural words that denote leisure activities in Europe are the national games with their lexical set; cricket, bull-fighting, boule, petanque, and hockey. To these must be added the largely English non-team games: tennis, snooker, squash, badmintons, fives, and large number of card games, the gambling games and their lexical sets being French casinos. Based on the underlying culture, different terms for work and leisure in the society can be specified.
Examples: Ajah, amah, condottiere, biwa, sithar, raga, reggae, ‘rock’.
4) Organizations, customs, ideas
a) Political and administrative: The political and social life of a country is reflected in its institutional terms. Where the little of a head of state (‘President’, ‘Prime Minister’, ‘King’) or the name of a parliament (Assemble National or Camera dei Deputati or ‘senate’) are ‘transparent’, that is, made up of ‘international’ or easily translated morphemes, they are through translated (‘National Assembly’, ‘Chamber of Deputies’) where the name of a parliament is not (readily ‘translatable’ it has recognized official translation for administrative documents, but is often transferred for an educated readership and glossed for a general readership. Names of ministers are usually literally translated, provided they are appropriately descriptive. When a public body has a ‘transparent’ name, the translation depends on the ‘setting’: in official documents, and in serious publications such as text books, the title is transferred and, where appropriate, literally translated. Informally, it could be translated by a cultural equivalent. Where a public body or organization has an ‘opaque’ name, the translator has first to establish whether there is a recognized and is appropriate in the setting; if not, in a formal information text, the name should be transferred, and a functional, cultural-free equivalent given. Any series of local government institutions and posts should be transferred when the terms are unique and consistency is required.
b) Religious: In religious language, the proselytizing activities of Christianity, particularly the Catholic Church and the Baptism, are reflected in manifold translation. The language of the other world religions tends to be transferred when it becomes of TL interstate commonest words being naturalized (‘Pharisees’). American Bible scholars and linguistics have been particularly exercised by cultural connotations and due to the translation of similes of fruit and husbandry into where they are inappropriate. The language of each religion is specific. Dharma, karma, temple
c) Artistic: Artistic terms are closely related to the culture and society in which a language is spoken. The translation of artistic terms that refer to movements, processes and organizations generally depends on the general knowledge of the readers. Names of buildings, museums, theatres, and opera houses, are likely to be transferred as well as translated, since they form part of street plans and addresses.
d) Historical terms: The first principle is not to translate historical terms, whether the translation make sense (is ‘transparent’) or not (is ‘opaque’), unless they have generally accepted translations. In academic texts and educated writing, they are usually transferred, with, where appropriate, a functional or descriptive term with as much descriptive detail as is required. In popular texts, the transferred word can be replaced by the functional or descriptive term.
5) Gestures and habits
There is a distinction between the description and function of habits in different cultures. There are some actions and gestures which they occur in some cultures and not in others.
Examples: To smile a little when someone dies, do a slow hand-clap to express warm appreciation, spit as a blessing, nod to dissent or shake their heads to assent, kiss their finger tips to greet or to praise, give a thumbs-up to signal OK.
2.9.2 Thriveni’s Classification
According to Indian culture Thriveni (2001) classified the problems which the translators face when translating a text from one language

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