منابع و ماخذ پایان نامه حزب سوسیالیست، interest

and attempts to analyze the corpus of the study to investigate translation strategies and procedures. Generally it can be said that this study is a Qualitative/Quantitative Descriptive study which focuses on the frequency of translation strategies which were used in the English to Persian translation of James Joyce’s ‘Dubliners’.
3.5 Procedure
The researcher has started the research procedure by studying different articles and books related to the field of translation and translation problems caused by cultural differences. After identifying the selected topic as the research topic, James Joyce’s ‘Dubliners’ has been selected as the corpus of the study to be worked on. The first step in the procedure of the present research was studying the original English book of ‘Dubliners’ and its Persian translation. After that based on Newmark’s (1988) categorization of cultural-presupposition words, all the words, phrases, and clauses which were culturally presupposed were extracted from the English text. Then the Persian translations for the selected terms were identified in the Persian translation of the book.
When all the data have been collected, each word or phrase written with its translated equivalent were put under the categories of translation strategies extracted from the work of the famous scholar, Newmark (1988). Finally the researcher put the results into numerical modes and calculated the frequency percentage of each and every strategy in order to specify the most and the least frequent translation strategy which were used in the translation process of cultural presuppositions.
3.6 Data Collection
The process of data collection was started by studying the original English book of ‘Dubliners’. After that based on Newmark’s (1988) categorization of cultural-presupposition words, all the words, phrases, and clauses which were culturally presupposed were extracted from the English text. Next by studying the Persian translations of the same book, Persian equivalents for the selected terms were identified in the Persian translation and they were written side by side in order to perform the data analysis on them.
3.7 Data Analysis
After the collection of data, the frequency of the translation strategies which were used to solve the translation problems of culturally-based presuppositions were put into numerical modes and were calculated in terms of percentage to find out the most and the least frequently used strategies and also to see whether their frequency provide a systematic regulation for translating culturally-based presuppositions or not. The data analysis’ process which has been explained shortly in this section will be discussed in more details in the next chapter of the present research.
Chapter IV
Results and Discussions
4.1 Introduction
As mentioned before the purpose of this study is to identify the strategies applied in the translation process of cultural presuppositions in the novel of the ‘Dubliners’ by James Joyce (2001). To reach this goal all the fifteen short stories of this book together with their Persian translation by Safarian and Hoseiny (1385) were examined. In this chapter the researcher will put forward the findings through the investigation of a series of analyses and calculations on the ‘Dubliners’ by James Joyce along with their Persian translation, to extract the most and the least translation strategies used in the translation process of cultural presuppositions from English to Persian. By doing that the answers of the two mentioned research questions would be crucially obtained. Categorization of cultural presuppositions and the translation strategies for dealing with them is based on Newmark’s categorization (1988) which has been explained in the previous chapter in details. However, not all of the mentioned translation strategies were used in translating what is called cultural presuppositions in this study. The detailed analyses are illustrated in tables and charts to facilitate the data presentation.
4.2 Description of the Data
As it was stated earlier, the researcher selected James Joyce’s Dubliners translated from English to Persian by Safaryan and Hoseiny (1385). The book contains 15 short stories. The whole cultural presuppositions appearing in these short stories as well as their Persian translation were collected and analyzed in order to find the frequency of the translation strategies applied for translation of them. The detailed analyses of the findings based on the research model are as follows. The total cultural presupposition items found in this study are 280.
4.2.1 Cultural Presuppositions
The categorization of cultural presuppositions, used in this research is based on Newmark’s (1988) model introduced in chapter 3 of this thesis. In the following sections, a detailed description of each cultural category along with their Persian translation, and some examples of them relating to each short story are presented. The total number of each category will be presented to provide a general perspective of the cultural load of each category.
4.2.1.1 Ecology
According to Newmark (1988) because of the geographical differences between cultures, many countries have some local words for different ecological features. In the process of data collection, no instance of this strategy has been found.
4.2.1.2 Material Culture (Artifacts)
a) Food
Based on Newmark (1988) food is the most sensitive and important expression of national culture; food terms are subject to the widest verity of translation procedures. Of the 280 examples of cultural presuppositions, 38 items were found in this category.
Table 1: Food
Table 1: Food
No.
Source Language
Target Language
Story
1
Pudding
پودینگ
Two Gallants
2
Bass
آبجوی باس
The Boarding House
3
Hot punch
پانچ گرم
Counterparts
4
Brandy
برندی
Grace
5
Blancmange
مسقطی
The Dead
b) Clothes
As Newmark (1988) states clothes as cultural terms may be sufficiently explained for TL general readers if the genetic noun or classifier is added, or again, if the particular is of no interest, the genetic word can simply replace it. Of the 280 examples of cultural presuppositions, 19 items were found in this category.
Table 2: Clothes
Table 2: Clothes
No.
Source Language
Target Language
Story
1
Jerry hat
کلاه بوقی
An Encounter
2
Petticoat
پاچین
Araby
3
Yatching cap
کلاه پارچه ای قایقرانی
Two Gallants
4
Cloak
بالاپوش
A Mother
5
Frock-coat
کت فراک
Grace
c) Housing
According to Nawmark (1988) many language communities have a typical house which for general purposes remains untranslated. Of the 280 examples of cultural presuppositions, only 3 items were found in this category.
Table 3: Housing
Table 3: Housing
No.
Source Language
Target Language
Story
1
Cottage
کلبه
Araby
2
Boarding house
پانسیون
The Boarding House
3
Pantry
آبدارخانه
The Boarding House
d) Transport
As Newmark (1988) states, the names of various carriages provide local color and connote prestige. Of the 280 examples of cultural presuppositions, 16 items were found in this category.
Table 4: Transport
Table 4: Transport
No.
Source Language
Target Language
Story
1
Ferryboat
جسر
An Encounter
2
Barges
دوبه ها
An Encounter
3
Vessel
سفینه
An Encounter
4
yacht
کشتی تفریحی
After The Race
5
Trams
ترامواها
Two gallants
4.2.1.3 Social Culture
Based on Newmark (1988) in considering social culture, when there are some words or expressions in a language which do not exist in another countries, there is rarely a translation problem.
a) Work
Of the 280 examples of cultural presuppositions, 28 items were found in this category.
Table 5: Work
Table 5: Work
No.
Source Language
Target Language
Story
1
Johnny Rush’s
درشکه خانۀ جانی راش
Sisters
2
Araby
بازار عربی
Araby
3
Deck boy
جاشو
Eveline
4
Sheriff’s man
پادوی ضابط عدلیه
The Boarding House
5
League
انجمن {منع مسکرات}
A Painful Case
b) Leisure
Of the 280 examples of cultural presuppositions, 18 items were found in this category.
Table 6: Leisure
Table 6: Leisure
No.
Source Language
Target Language
Story
1
Catapult
تیر کمان
An Encounter
2
Square dance
رقص چهار نفره
After The Race
3
The Queen of Diamonds
بی بی خشت
After The Race
4
Card-party
مجلس بازی ورق
A Little Cloud
5
To stand a drink all round
همه را به یک دور مشروب مهمان کردن
Counterparts
4.2.1.4 Organizations, Customs, Ideas
a) Political and Administrative
According to Newmark (1988) the political and social life of a country is reflected in its institutional terms. Of the 280 examples of cultural presuppositions, 36 items were found in this category.
Table 7: Political and Administrative
Table 7: Political and Administrative
No.
Source Language
Target Language
Story
1
Orange tie
کراوات نارنجی
A Little Cloud
2
North of Ireland accent
لهجۀ شمال ایرلندی
Counterparts
3
Irish Socialist Party
حزب سوسیالیست ایرلند
A painful Case
4
Ivy Day
روز گل پیچک
Ivy Day In The Committee Room
5
Uncrowned king
شاه بی تاج
Ivy Day In The Committee Room
b) Religious
As Newmark (1988) states the language of each religion is specific. Of the 280 examples of cultural presuppositions, 83 items were found in this category.
Table 8: Religious
Table 8: Religious
No.
Source Language
Target Language
Story
1
Mortal
گناه کبیره
Sisters
2
To cross
صلیب کشیدن
Sisters
3
Promises
میثاق
Eveline
4
Reparation
کفاره
The Boarding House
5
The Jesuits
یسوعی ها
Grace
c) Artistic
Based on Newmark (1988) artistic terms are closely related to the culture and society in

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